According to, the New York-based Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) has recently retracted 323 academic papers from its database.

All were by Chinese scholars. Some were even from double-first-class universities such as the China Agricultural University and East China University of Science and Technology.

ACM said its investigation found that the documents came from a fake academic conference and were published without proper peer review.

ACM announced the papers were removed from its Digital Library and said, [quote] “None of the papers from this proceeding should be cited in the literature because of the questionable integrity of the peer review process for this Conference.” [end quote]

According to Finance Sina, the fabricated event is believed to have taken the name, date, and location of the International Conference on Information Management and Technology, or ICIMTech 2021, held in Jakarta, Indonesia, last August 19 and 20.

ICIMTech 2021 obtained 330 papers, with 158 of the top class being accepted and published. The copycat version has 323 papers.

ICIMTech 2021 issued a statement saying that their conference’s identity has been used to publish unrelated papers.

The committee said that the sponsors BINNU and IEEE Indonesia have never given these papers to ACM for publication.

The retracted papers were authored by Chinese scholars from the Chengdu University of Technology and local institutions such as Guangdong University of Science and Technology, Shanghai University, and Wuhan Donghu University. There were also those from foreign universities, for example, the National Lei Province University of Science and Technology in the Philippines.

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is the world’s most significant professional academic organization in the computer field. The Turing Award, chosen by ACM, is regarded as the Nobel Prize in computing.

On November 29, 2013, a U.S.-based Science news outlet released China’s Publication Bazaar report. The report found that the charges for fake papers in China can vary from 1,600 dollars to 26,300 dollars. The cost of purchasing a paper generally exceeds the annual salary of a Chinese assistant professor.

The research authors identified a flourishing “academic black market” for trading papers in China.

One company charges 14,800 dollars for a co-first author on an article on cancer. A co-first author and a co-corresponding author raise the price to 26,300 dollars.

On March 23 last year, the academic journal Nature reported on China’s fake-paper factories. They found that fake papers from Chinese hospitals soared by 50 times in the past two decades.

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